Article 3.1 Citizenship at the
commencement of the ConstitutionAll persons who
were citizens at the commencement of this Constitution shall be
deemed to be citizens of India.
Citizenship by Birth
All persons born
in India after independence other than those who have acquired
citizenship of Pakistan or Bangladesh shall be citizens of India
for life ever if they are permanently residing in another
country and/or have acquired citizenship of one or more other
Citizenship by Naturalisation
Citizens of other
countries residing in India for more than five years can apply
for citizenship of India. The national parliament shall make
appropriate rules for grant of citizenship to such persons. A
naturalised citizen will have all the rights of citizen by birth
except that he or she shall not be eligible for holding the
office of a chief executive at the local, state or national
Obligations of Citizenship
The obligations of
citizenship shall include:
1 Recognise the
universal values of humanism, integral to the culture of
India, and advocated and practised by all religions.
universal human values of brotherhood; treat all other human
beings, especially women and children, with dignity
irrespective of race, religion, birth, sex, or social and
3 Resist all
types of social, economic and political exploitation, nor
indulge in exploitation of others. Exercise vigilance
that no human being, animal or the environment is being
exploited and do all that can be done to prevent exploitation.
4 Value and
preserve the rich heritage of the composite culture of India
nurtured by its people for centuries.
5 Develop and
promote a scientific temper and the spirit of inquiry.
6 Protect and
conserve the natural environment including forests, water
systems, soil and wild life and oppose any type of violence
7 Strive for
excellence in all spheres of individual and collective
activity for building a self-reliant, egalitarian nation.
public policy and abjure violence, nor submit to it.
9 Uphold and
protect the sovereignty, democracy, unity and integrity of
India and its people.
10 Abide by the
Constitution for Free Bharat, respect and love the national
flag and the national anthem, and, in expression thereof,
display the national flag on their homes and other buildings
but not on vehicles, and play or sing the national anthem in